How widespread current exposure is to be able to make immediate policy recommendations on mitigation measures. Denominators for testing and a mechanism for rapidly sharing that information, including demographics, to the extent possible. Sampling methods to determine asymptomatic disease (e.g., use of serosurveys (such as convalescent samples) and early detection of disease (e.g., use of screening of neutralizing antibodies such as ELISAs).

COVID-19: Is a paradigm change to be expected in health care and transfusion medicine?
The cancellation of mass gatherings (MGs)? Decision making in the time of COVID-19
Historical linkages: epidemic threat, economic risk, and xenophobia
COVID 19: Will the 2020 Hajj pilgrimage and Tokyo Olympic Games be cancelled?
Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in complex humanitarian crises

Efforts to increase capacity on existing diagnostic platforms and tap into existing surveillance platforms.

Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Will financial innovation transform pandemic response?
Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak
On the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak and the Smart City Network: Universal Data Sharing Standards Coupled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Benefit Urban Health Monitoring and Management
Mitigating the impact of conference and travel cancellations on researchers’ futures

Recruitment, support, and coordination of local expertise and capacity (public, private—commercial, and non-profit, including academic), including legal, ethical, communications, and operational issues.

Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak
Will financial innovation transform pandemic response?
Mitigating the impact of conference and travel cancellations on researchers’ futures
COVID-19: the medium is the message

National guidance and guidelines about best practices to states (e.g., how states might leverage universities and private laboratories for testing purposes, communications to public health officials and the public).

Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak
Will financial innovation transform pandemic response?
Mitigating the impact of conference and travel cancellations on researchers’ futures
COVID-19: the medium is the message

Development of a point-of-care test (like a rapid influenza test) and rapid bed-side tests, recognizing the tradeoffs between speed, accessibility, and accuracy.

Recent advances and perspectives of nucleic acid detection for coronavirus
Integrated Micropillar Polydimethylsiloxane Accurate CRISPR Detection (IMPACT) System for Rapid Viral DNA Sensing
All-in-One Dual CRISPR-Cas12a (AIOD-CRISPR) Assay: A Case for Rapid, Ultrasensitive and Visual Detection of Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and HIV virus
Ultra-Low-Cost Integrated Silicon-based Transducer for On-Site, Genetic Detection of Pathogens
Sensitive one-step isothermal detection of pathogen-derived RNAs

Rapid design and execution of targeted surveillance experiments calling for all potential testers using PCR in a defined area to start testing and report to a specific entity. These experiments could aid in collecting longitudinal samples, which are critical to understanding the impact of ad hoc local interventions (which also need to be recorded).

Scientometric Trends for Coronaviruses and Other Emerging Viral Infections
The international imperative to rapidly and inexpensively monitor community-wide Covid-19 infection status and trends
Improving epidemic surveillance and response: big data is dead, long live big data
Can a Paper-Based Device Trace COVID-19 Sources with Wastewater-Based Epidemiology?
Estimation of the asymptomatic ratio of novel coronavirus infections (COVID-19)

Separation of assay development issues from instruments, and the role of the private sector to help quickly migrate assays onto those devices.

The international imperative to rapidly and inexpensively monitor community-wide Covid-19 infection status and trends
On the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak and the Smart City Network: Universal Data Sharing Standards Coupled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Benefit Urban Health Monitoring and Management
Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Will financial innovation transform pandemic response?
Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak

Efforts to track the evolution of the virus (i.e., genetic drift or mutations) and avoid locking into specific reagents and surveillance/detection schemes.

High sensitivity detection of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using multiplex PCR and a multiplex-PCR-based metagenomic method
Rapid metagenomic characterization of a case of imported COVID-19 in Cambodia
Non-invasive surveys of mammalian viruses using environmental DNA
Complete Genome Sequence of a 2019 Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Strain Isolated in Nepal
Amplicon based MinION sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 and metagenomic characterisation of nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with COVID-19

Latency issues and when there is sufficient viral load to detect the pathogen, and understanding of what is needed in terms of biological and environmental sampling.

New regulatory strategies to manage medicines shortages in Europe
Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Will financial innovation transform pandemic response?
Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak
Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries

Use of diagnostics such as host response markers (e.g., cytokines) to detect early disease or predict severe disease progression, which would be important to understanding best clinical practice and efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

A brief review of antiviral drugs evaluated in registered clinical trials for COVID-19
Individualized System for Augmenting Ventilator Efficacy (iSAVE): A Rapidly deployable system to expand ventilator capacity
The COVID-19 pandemic and the use of MS Disease-Modifying Therapies
The efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of severe influenza
Appealing for Efficient, Well Organized Clinical Trials on COVID-19

Policies and protocols for screening and testing.

An alternative workflow for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 – escape from the NA extraction kit-shortage
Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection based on CT scan vs. RT-PCR: Reflecting on Experience from MERS-CoV
International expansion of a novel SARS-CoV-2 mutant
Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection by Detection of Nucleocapsid Protein
Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples

Policies to mitigate the effects on supplies associated with mass testing, including swabs and reagents.

Severe air pollution events not avoided by reduced anthropogenic activities during COVID-19 outbreak
COVID-19: mitigating transmission via wastewater plumbing systems
Transmission Potential of SARS-CoV-2 in Viral Shedding Observed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center
COVID-19, City Lockdown, and Air Pollution: Evidence from China
Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries

Technology roadmap for diagnostics.

Can a Paper-Based Device Trace COVID-19 Sources with Wastewater-Based Epidemiology?
Integrated Micropillar Polydimethylsiloxane Accurate CRISPR Detection (IMPACT) System for Rapid Viral DNA Sensing
Recent advances and perspectives of nucleic acid detection for coronavirus
The international imperative to rapidly and inexpensively monitor community-wide Covid-19 infection status and trends
Evaluation of a quantitative RT-PCR assay for the detection of the emerging coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using a high throughput system

Barriers to developing and scaling up new diagnostic tests (e.g., market forces), how future coalition and accelerator models (e.g., Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations) could provide critical funding for diagnostics, and opportunities for a streamlined regulatory environment.

Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap
Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak
Will financial innovation transform pandemic response?
Mitigating the impact of conference and travel cancellations on researchers’ futures
COVID-19: the medium is the message

New platforms and technology (e.g., CRISPR) to improve response times and employ more holistic approaches to COVID-19 and future diseases.

Can a Paper-Based Device Trace COVID-19 Sources with Wastewater-Based Epidemiology?
Double-Quencher Probes Improved the Detection Sensitivity of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by One-Step RT-PCR
Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with nanoparticles-based biosensor for diagnosis of COVID-19
Sensitive one-step isothermal detection of pathogen-derived RNAs
Ensuring global access to COVID-19 vaccines

Coupling genomics and diagnostic testing on a large scale.

NetNCSP: Nonoverlapping closed sequential pattern mining
International expansion of a novel SARS-CoV-2 mutant
Interpretable detection of novel human viruses from genome sequencing data
Failed detection of the full-length genome of SARS-CoV-2 by ultra-deep sequencing from the recovered and discharged patients retested viral PCR positive
Evaluation of Group Testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA

Enhance capabilities for rapid sequencing and bioinformatics to target regions of the genome that will allow specificity for a particular variant.

High sensitivity detection of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using multiplex PCR and a multiplex-PCR-based metagenomic method
Rapid metagenomic characterization of a case of imported COVID-19 in Cambodia
Amplicon based MinION sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 and metagenomic characterisation of nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with COVID-19
A proposal of alternative primers for the ARTIC Network’s multiplex PCR to improve coverage of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing
Non-invasive surveys of mammalian viruses using environmental DNA

Enhance capacity (people, technology, data) for sequencing with advanced analytics for unknown pathogens, and explore capabilities for distinguishing naturally-occurring pathogens from intentional.

Rapid metagenomic characterization of a case of imported COVID-19 in Cambodia
Moral imperative for the immediate release of 2019-nCoV sequence data
No more business as usual: agile and effective responses to emerging pathogen threats require open data and open analytics
On the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak and the Smart City Network: Universal Data Sharing Standards Coupled with Artificial Intelligence (AI) to Benefit Urban Health Monitoring and Management
Teaching-practice as a critical bridge for narrowing the research-practice gap

One Health surveillance of humans and potential sources of future spillover or ongoing exposure for this organism and future pathogens, including both evolutionary hosts (e.g., bats) and transmission hosts (e.g., heavily trafficked and farmed wildlife and domestic food and companion species), inclusive of environmental, demographic, and occupational risk factors.

Preventing bat-born viral outbreaks in future using ecological interventions
Six weeks into the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak- it is time to consider strategies to impede the emergence of new zoonotic infections
In search for the hotspots of Disease X: A biogeographic approach to mapping the predictive risk of WHO s Blueprint Priority Diseases
Potential Factors Influencing Repeated SARS Outbreaks in China
Epidemic preparedness in urban settings: new challenges and opportunities